Aquaculture systems pertain to the growth of aquatic animals and plants and it does cover a wide range of species and methods. It is commonly practiced in the areas of the north and south where there are cold waters where aquatic species like salmon and sturgeon are grown in ponds, cages in the sea and flowing raceways, down to the tropics where tropical fishes like tilapia and carp flourish in freshwater, while sea bass and shrimp are farmed along the coasts.
The production of different fish varieties occurs in rural areas using ponds to the intensive culture of ornamental fish in plastic tanks in urban areas. Aquaculture system is being practiced by the poorest farmers in developing countries as part of their livelihood and by top executives in North America and Europe that produces baitfish for weekend fishing trip in the countryside.
Modern aquaculture system aims to help nature’s natural productivity that are being designed in various intensive indoor system that are monitored with high technology equipment through the simple release of baby fish to the sea. Others create the simplest production system usually built as small family ponds especially in tropical countries for carp production that are being used for domestic consumption. Other countries like North America build intensive closed indoor units to raise striped bass. Europe uses sea cages to grow bream and salmon.
Type of Aquaculture Systems
For many years now, different indoor rearing systems were designed to produce different aquatic species for the purpose of development of seed production or hatcheries in controlled condition indoors. Such system has been successful to produce aquatic species and eradicate the spread of diseases in raising fish and maintain a stable condition that some species need to flourish and reproduce.
This type of aquaculture system are commonly used to raise plants such as seaweeds that are grown on seabed or on raft or racks in shallow coastal waters that is being used for food consumption or to produce alginate or carageenan that is commonly known as “agar agar”. This aquaculture sector that consist of small scale growers are mainly seen in Asia and parts of South America wherein they attach the seedlings of marine plants of simple structures within the shoreline area. This type of aquaculture system can be used to for production of other aquatic species such as oysters, mussels and clams.
Almost all countries use this type of aquaculture system that are commonly built in fresh water and these ponds are made of earth. It is the most simple production system wherein a small excavation can be done near a farmer’s house or backyard and using the spoil to build a raised foundation for the house itself. Normally, the pond will be fed by natural rainfall or even ground water or simply diverting a nearby stream or irrigation canal. Once done, young fish can be stock in the pond to be raised. After holding the young fish for a time in a small floating net to check if they are in good condition then it can be released into the pond. Usually, a good balance of different marine species being raised in a pond is the best way to improve production. This practice with different species can consume the varied types of food available in the pond and can be made use of.
Usually the design of coastal aquaculture systems are done in coastal areas, in ponds or in floating cages near the ocean or within the coastal areas using sturdy cages called as “ranching” where young fish are released to the wild then collected through normal fishing activity or by training them by responding to specially generated sounds. Commonly practiced in tropical coastal zones around Latin America and Asia where most shrimp farms are found.